Home > Banco de questões > Linguagens/Inglês > Militares >

Inglês na AFA

Lista de 15 exercícios de Inglês com gabarito com questões da AFA.



Texto para todas as questões

Instruction: Answer the question according to the text.

TEXT

WHY DO SUPERVILLAINS FASCINATE US? A PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

Why are we fascinated by supervillains? Posing

the question is much like asking why evil itself intrigues

us, but there's much more to our continued interest in

supervillains than meets the eye.

[5] Not only do Lex Luthor, Dracula and the Red Skull

run unconstrained by conventional morality, they exist

outside the limits of reality itself. Their evil, even at its

most realistic, retains a touch of the unreal.

But is our fascination with fantastic fiends1

[10] healthy? From a psychological perspective, views vary

on what drives our enduring interest in superhuman bad

guys.

Shadow confrontation: Psychiatrist Carl Jung

believed we need to confront and understand our own

[15] hidden nature to grow as human beings. Healthy

confrontation with our shadow selves can unearth new

strengths (e.g., Bruce Wayne creating his Dark Knight

persona to fight crime), whereas unhealthy attempts at

confrontation may involve dwelling on or unleashing the

[20] worst parts of ourselves.

Wish fulfillment: Sigmund Freud viewed human

nature as inherently antisocial, biologically driven by the

undisciplined id's pleasure principle to get what we

want when we want it – born to be bad but held back by

[25] society. Even if the psyche fully develops its ego

(source of self-control) and superego (conscience),

Freudians say the id still dwells2

underneath, and it

wishes for many selfish things – so it would love to be

supervillainous.

[30] Hierarchy of needs: Humanistic psychologist

Abraham Maslow held that people who haven't met

their most basic needs will have difficulty maturing. If

starved for food, you're unlikely to feel secure. If

starved for love and companionship, you'll have trouble

[35] building self-esteem. People who dwell on their deficits

may envy and resent others who have more than they

do. Some people who are unable to overcome social

shortcomings fantasize about obtaining any means,

good or bad, to satisfy every need and greed.

[40] Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov would say we can learn

to associate supervillains with other things we value –

like entertainment, strength, freedom or the heroes

themselves. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner would likely argue

that we can find it reinforcing to watch or read about

[45] supervillains, but without knowing what's reinforcing

about them, that's a bit like saying it's rewarding

because it's rewarding.

Our Motivations for Seeking Out Supervillains

Throughout history, humans have been captivated

[50] by stories of heroes facing off against superhuman

foes3. But what specific rewards, needs, wishes and

dark dreams do supervillains satisfy?

Freedom: Superpowered characters enjoy

freedoms the rest of us don't. Nobody can arrest

[55] Superman unless he lets them (at least not without

kryptonite handcuffs). As much time as supervillains

spend locked up, they seem to escape as often as they

please, to run unconstrained by rules and regulations.

Cosplayers who dress like Wonder Woman and

[60] Captain America can't do any crazy thing that crosses

their minds without seeming to mock and insult our

heroes, whereas those dressed as villains get to go

wild. Supervillainy feels liberating.

Power: Maybe you envy the power these evil

[65] characters wield4 .While that's also a reason to adore

superheroes, good guys don't ache to dominate.

Stories like Watchmen and Kingdom Come show how

heroes become menaces5 when they try to take over.

So when dreaming of superpowers, maybe you relate

[70] to characters who dream of power as well, from the

Scarecrow (who controls individuals' fears) to Doctor

Doom (who's perpetually out to dominate the world).

Better villain than victim: Physiologically, anger

activates us and feels better than anxiety or fear. One

[75] who feels victimized and cannot figure out constructive

ways to stand up, be strong or become heroic might

twist the need for self-assertion into destruction.

Alternately, a healthy person simply might focus on how

all characters assert themselves in any given story.

[80] Better villain equals better hero: A hero only

appears as heroic as the challenge he or she must

overcome. Great heroes require great villains. Without

supercriminals, the world's finest heroes seem like

overpowered brutes nabbing thugs6unworthy of them.

[85] Through myths, legends and lore across time, we have

needed heroes who rise to the occasion, overcome

great odds7 and take down giants.

Facing our fears: Instead of dreading the

darkness, you might reduce that dread by shining a

[90] light and seeing what's out there. Fiction can help us

feel empowered and enlightened without literally

traipsing into mob hangouts8and poorly lit alleyways9.

Exploring the unknown: Our need to challenge

the unknown has driven the human race to cover the

[95] globe. This powerful curiosity makes us wonder about

everything that baffles10 us, including the world's worst

fiends. Knowledge is power, or at least feels like it.

When gritty details repulse us, exploring evil through the

filter of fiction can help us contemplate humanity's

[100] worst without turning away or dwelling almost

voyeuristically on real human tragedy. Even when the

fiction is about improbable people doing impossible

things, the story's fantastic nature reassures us that this

cannot happen – and therefore we don't have to turn

[105] away.

Supervillains' Ultimate Purpose

In the end, our interest in supervillains can be

healthy or unhealthy. Even the more maladaptive

reasons for such fascination tend to arise from

[110] motivations that were originally healthy and natural –

frustrated drives that went the wrong way.

Remember, though, that superheroic fiction

ultimately begins and ends with the heroes. Comic book

writers and artists create supervillains, who move in and

[115] out as guest stars and supporting cast, first and

foremost to reveal how heroic the comics' stars can be.

(Adapted from https://www.wired.com/2012/07/why-do-supervillainsfascinate-us/)

Glossary:

1. fiend – an evil and cruel person

2. to dwell – remain

3. foe – an enemy

4. to wield – influence, use power

5. menace – threat

6. to nab thugs – arrest criminals

7. odds – probability

8. to traipse into mob hangouts – walk among places where gangs, criminals meet

9. poorly lit alleyways – narrow road or path with little light

10. to baffle – confuse somebody completely

01. (AFA) According to what drives people’s interest in supervillains, the text mentions

  1. the conscious knowledge that supervillains reinforce things we value (Pavlov and Skinner).
  2. the negative side people need to hide to grow as human beings (Carl Jung).
  3. the undisciplined principle controlled by society (Sigmund Freud).
  4. people’s lack of necessity of food, security and love (Abraham Maslow)

02. (AFA) Mark the option in which the underlined word makes it clear that the subject and the object are the same.

  1. [...] they exist outside the limits of reality itself. (lines 6 and 7)
  2. [...] like entertainment, strength, freedom or the heroes themselves. (lines 42 and 43)
  3. [...] become heroic might twist the need for selfassertion into destruction. (lines 76 and 77)
  4. [...] all characters assert themselves in any given story. (line 79)

03. (AFA) In the sentence “when gritty details repulse us [...]” (line 98), the underlined word means

  1. harmful.
  2. unknown.
  3. unpleasant but true.
  4. impossible.

04. (AFA) The sentence “[...] Abraham Maslow held that people who haven't met their most basic needs will have difficulty maturing.” (lines 31 and 32) means the psychologist believes that

  1. if people don’t become mature, they will have trouble meeting their basic needs.
  2. if Abraham Maslow hadn’t met his basic needs, people would have had difficulty maturing.
  3. unless people fulfill their basic necessities, getting mature won’t be easy for them.
  4. unless one gets their basic necessities, they won’t have difficulty maturing.

05. (AFA) Identify the option that summarizes the item “freedom” (lines 53 to 63).

  1. We need to obey rules and regulations that the superpowered characters follow too.
  2. We look for supervillainy in order to feel that we can behave the way we want.
  3. Supervillains shouldn’t insult our heroes.
  4. Nobody can arrest a superhero or a supervillain.

06. (AFA) the paragraph “Better villain equals better hero” (lines 80 to 84), the author DOESN’T

  1. make a comparison.
  2. count a number of features.
  3. indicate that something is necessary.
  4. describe characters.

07. (AFA) Read the statements below and mark the option that contains the correct ones according to the text.

I. Vulnerable people may have their self-esteem affected.

II. Everybody is infatuated with antagonists.

III. In a psychological perspective, antiheroes aren’t despised at all by the public.

IV. The author reminds us that funny writers created supervillains stories.

V. We have cherished defeated heroes and victorious antiheroes.

  1. Only sentences I, II and IV are correct.
  2. Only sentences I and III are correct.
  3. Only sentences II, III and V are correct.
  4. Only sentences IV and V are correct.

08. (AFA) One of the statements below LACKS the content of the text.

Mark it

  1. Our curiosity makes us wonder what we’ve already understood.
  2. According to the author’s perspective on superheroes, they can be both heroes and fiends.
  3. Heroes depend on villains to succeed.
  4. A part of our unconscious mind would desire to be a villain.

09. (AFA) The author concludes that

  1. superheroes have been the supporting cast, not the stars anymore.
  2. our motivations for seeking out supervillains are originally unhealthy.
  3. supervillains are created to prove how heroic and powerful the superheroes are.
  4. comic book writers create supervillains to overcome superheroes.

10. (AFA) Mark the option in which the sentence is an example of passive voice.

  1. Sigmund Freud viewed human nature as inherently antisocial, biologically driven by the undisciplined id's pleasure principle. (lines 21 to 23)
  2. People who haven't met their most basic needs will have difficulty maturing. (lines 31 and 32)
  3. Humans have been captivated by stories of heroes facing off against superhuman foes. (lines 49 to 51)
  4. We have needed heroes who rise to the occasion, overcome great odds and take down giants.(lines 85 to 87)

11. (AFA) One of the messages below is mentioned in the text.

Mark it.

  1. We have to face and know ourselves deeply in order to become better.
  2. In fact, we are conditioned to expect more from the heroes.
  3. A psychological study states that people have been intrigued by the question whether we are fiends or not.
  4. Superheroes are empowered despite dominating the world.

12. (AFA) Mark the INCORRECT alternative.

[...] there's much more to our continued interest in supervillains than meets the eye.” (lines 3 and 4)

If there’s more to something than meets the eye, it means that

  1. it’s more difficult to understand.
  2. you are conscious of what is around you.
  3. it involves more things than you thought at the beginning.
  4. the situation is not as simple as it seems to be.

13. (AFA) “Not only do Lex Luthor, Dracula and the Red Skull run unconstrained by conventional morality [...]” (lines 5 and 6)

The highlighted word from the sentence above is used

  1. to perform an action.
  2. as an auxiliary verb of the clause.
  3. to emphasize the verb.
  4. to avoid repeating a verb.

14. (AFA) Mark the alternative which has the sentence below correctly reported.

[...] is our fascination with fantastic fiends healthy?” (lines 9 and 10)

The author

  1. replied: “is our fascination with fantastic fiends healthy?”
  2. said that their fascination with fantastic fiends had been healthy.
  3. told the readers their fascination with fantastic fiends has been healthy.
  4. asked if people’s fascination with fantastic fiends was healthy.

15. (AFA) The sentences below are used in the interrogative form.

Mark the one that is grammatically correct.

  1. Why does evil itself intrigues us? (lines 2 and 3)
  2. Who run unconstrained by conventional morality? (line 6)
  3. Who exist outside the limits of reality itself? (lines 6 and 7)
  4. What drives our enduring interest in superhuman bad guys? (lines 11 and 12)

Você acredita que o gabarito esteja incorreto? Avisa aí 😰| Email ou WhatsApp



.