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Fuvest 2021: Inglês

1. (Fuvest 2021) Leia os provérbios:

1. Don’t count your chickens before they lay eggs.

2. Don’t bite the hand that feeds you.

3. Every cloud has a silver lining.

A alternativa que melhor expressa a ideia contida em cada um dos três provérbios, na ordem em que aparecem, é:

  1. Esperteza; desconfiança; foco.
  2. Precipitação; ingratidão; esperança.
  3. Observação; certeza; experiência.
  4. Exagero; harmonia; desaprovação.
  5. Orgulho; desprezo; teimosia.

2. (Fuvest 2021) TEXTO PARA AS QUESTÕES 59 E 60.

I knew TikTok existed, but I didn’t fully understand what it was until a few months ago. I also realized that something radical, yet largely invisible, is happening on the internet – with implications we still don't understand.

When I was growing up, I took it for granted that the people who became famous enough to be listened to by a crowd had worked hard for that accolade and generally operated with the support of an institution or an established industry.

The idea that I, as a teenager in my bedroom, might suddenly communicate with 100,000 people or more, would have seemed bizarre.

Today’s kids no longer see life in these hierarchical and institutional terms. Yes, their physical worlds are often constrained by parental controls, a lack of access to the outdoors and insane over-scheduling.

But despite that (or, more accurately, in reaction to that), they see the internet as a constantly evolving frontier, where it is still possible for a bold and lucky pioneer to grab some land or find a voice. Most voices on the internet never travel beyond a relatively small network, and much of the content that goes viral on platforms such as TikTok, YouTube or Instagram does so because of unseen institutions at work (for example, a public relations team aiming to boost a celebrity’s profile).

Fame can suddenly appear – and then just as suddenly be taken away again, because the audience gets bored, the platform’s algorithms change or the cultural trend that a breakout video has tapped into goes out of fashion.

For a teenager, social media can seem like a summer garden at dusk filled with fireflies: spots of lights suddenly flare up and then die down, moving in an unpredictable, capricious display.

Is this a bad thing? We will not know for several years.

Financial Times. 5 February 2020. Adaptado.

Conforme o texto, um aspecto associado ao caráter efêmero da popularidade de um usuário da internet, relativo ao uso de plataformas como TikTok, é

  1. a falta de conhecimento técnico dos adolescentes para o manejo de hardware.
  2. a perda de interesse do público pelas publicações até então atrativas.
  3. a competição entre usuários com atitudes pouco éticas.
  4. a variedade limitada dos videos postados, em razão do tratamento precário das imagens.
  5. a alta capacidade dos vídeos para viralizar entre grupos com interesses conflitantes.

3. (Fuvest 2021) TEXTO PARA AS QUESTÕES DE 56 A 58.

As astronomers gaze into the depths of space, they do so with unease: They don’t know precisely what the universe is made of.

Surprisingly, no one knows the stars’ exact chemical composition: how many carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms they have relative to hydrogen, the most common element.

These numbers are crucial, because they affect how stars live and die, what types of planets form and even how readily life might arise on other worlds.

Twenty years ago, astronomers expressed confidence in the numbers they had been working with. Now, not so much. The problem lies not in the far corners of the cosmos, but much closer to home. Astonishingly, scientists don't know exactly what the sun is made of. As a result, they don't know what the other stars are made of, either.

“The sun is a fundamental yardstick,” says Martin Asplund, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, in Germany. “When we determine the abundance of a certain element in a star or a galaxy or a gas cloud anywhere in the universe, we use the sun as a reference point.”

The sun’s location in the Milky Way also makes it a good representative of the entire galaxy. Most stars reside in giant galaxies like the Milky Way, which makes the sun a touchstone for the entire cosmos.

For nearly a century, astronomers have judged stars normal or not by seeing whether their chemical compositions match the sun’s. Most stars near us do; some don’t.

Scientific American. 1 July 2020. Adaptado.

Conforme o texto, um critério tradicionalmente utilizado por astrônomos para avaliar estrelas envolve

  1. verificar se sua composição se assemelha à do Sol.
  2. selecionar galáxias compostas por estrelas padrão.
  3. calcular níveis de radiação estelar e de energia gravitacional.
  4. medir a densidade e grau de opacidade de nêutrons.
  5. testar a circulação atmosférica em torno dos astros.

4. (Fuvest 2021) I ain’t gonna work on Maggie’s farm no more

I ain’t gonna work on Maggie’s farm no more

Well, I wake up in the morning

Fold my hands and pray for rain

I got a head full of ideas

That are drivin’ me insane

It’s a shame the way she makes me scrub the floor

I ain’t gonna work on Maggie’s farm no more

I ain’t gonna work for Maggie’s brother no more

I ain’t gonna work for Maggie’s brother no more

Well, he hands you a nickel

He hands you a dime

He asks you with a grin

If you’re havin’ a good time

Then he fines you every time you slam the door

I ain’t gonna work for Maggie’s brother no more

I ain’t gonna work for Maggie’s pa no more

No, I ain’t gonna work for Maggie’s pa no more

Well, he puts his cigar out in your face just for kicks

His bedroom window it is made out of bricks

The National Guard stands around his door

Ah, I ain’t gonna work for Maggie’s pa no more, alright

Bob Dylan, "Maggie's Farm", do álbum Bringing it all back home, 1965.

Nestas estrofes, o conjunto de cenas descritas mostra que a principal dificuldade experimentada pela pessoa cuja história é contada na letra da música refere-se

  1. ao relacionamento difícil com familiares e amigos.
  2. à falta de criatividade diante das exigências do trabalho.
  3. às restrições impostas a sua liberdade e expressão pessoal.
  4. à competição por salários mais altos com colegas de trabalho.
  5. às dificuldades de viver fora de um grande centro urbano.

5. (Fuvest 2021) TEXTO PARA AS QUESTÕES 59 E 60.

I knew TikTok existed, but I didn’t fully understand what it was until a few months ago. I also realized that something radical, yet largely invisible, is happening on the internet – with implications we still don't understand.

When I was growing up, I took it for granted that the people who became famous enough to be listened to by a crowd had worked hard for that accolade and generally operated with the support of an institution or an established industry.

The idea that I, as a teenager in my bedroom, might suddenly communicate with 100,000 people or more, would have seemed bizarre.

Today’s kids no longer see life in these hierarchical and institutional terms. Yes, their physical worlds are often constrained by parental controls, a lack of access to the outdoors and insane over-scheduling.

But despite that (or, more accurately, in reaction to that), they see the internet as a constantly evolving frontier, where it is still possible for a bold and lucky pioneer to grab some land or find a voice. Most voices on the internet never travel beyond a relatively small network, and much of the content that goes viral on platforms such as TikTok, YouTube or Instagram does so because of unseen institutions at work (for example, a public relations team aiming to boost a celebrity’s profile).

Fame can suddenly appear – and then just as suddenly be taken away again, because the audience gets bored, the platform’s algorithms change or the cultural trend that a breakout video has tapped into goes out of fashion.

For a teenager, social media can seem like a summer garden at dusk filled with fireflies: spots of lights suddenly flare up and then die down, moving in an unpredictable, capricious display.

Is this a bad thing? We will not know for several years.

Financial Times. 5 February 2020. Adaptado.

No texto, a referência a um jardim de verão ao entardecer, repleto de vagalumes, sugere que, para os adolescentes, as mídias sociais

  1. são fonte de pressão e tensão na família.
  2. favorecem a comunicação dos mais tímidos.
  3. são pautadas por certa imprevisibilidade.
  4. garantem a funcionalidade de grupos.
  5. promovem igualdade de expressão.

6. (Fuvest 2021) TEXTO PARA AS QUESTÕES DE 56 A 58.

As astronomers gaze into the depths of space, they do so with unease: They don’t know precisely what the universe is made of.

Surprisingly, no one knows the stars’ exact chemical composition: how many carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms they have relative to hydrogen, the most common element.

These numbers are crucial, because they affect how stars live and die, what types of planets form and even how readily life might arise on other worlds.

Twenty years ago, astronomers expressed confidence in the numbers they had been working with. Now, not so much. The problem lies not in the far corners of the cosmos, but much closer to home. Astonishingly, scientists don't know exactly what the sun is made of. As a result, they don't know what the other stars are made of, either.

“The sun is a fundamental yardstick,” says Martin Asplund, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, in Germany. “When we determine the abundance of a certain element in a star or a galaxy or a gas cloud anywhere in the universe, we use the sun as a reference point.”

The sun’s location in the Milky Way also makes it a good representative of the entire galaxy. Most stars reside in giant galaxies like the Milky Way, which makes the sun a touchstone for the entire cosmos.

For nearly a century, astronomers have judged stars normal or not by seeing whether their chemical compositions match the sun’s. Most stars near us do; some don’t.

Scientific American. 1 July 2020. Adaptado.

No texto, o astrofísico Martin Asplund emprega a frase “The sun is a fundamental yardstick” (L. 18), por considerar o Sol

  1. um mistério.
  2. uma estrutura.
  3. um processo.
  4. um sistema.
  5. um parâmetro.

7. (Fuvest 2021) TEXTO PARA AS QUESTÕES DE 56 A 58.

As astronomers gaze into the depths of space, they do so with unease: They don’t know precisely what the universe is made of.

Surprisingly, no one knows the stars’ exact chemical composition: how many carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms they have relative to hydrogen, the most common element.

These numbers are crucial, because they affect how stars live and die, what types of planets form and even how readily life might arise on other worlds.

Twenty years ago, astronomers expressed confidence in the numbers they had been working with. Now, not so much. The problem lies not in the far corners of the cosmos, but much closer to home. Astonishingly, scientists don't know exactly what the sun is made of. As a result, they don't know what the other stars are made of, either.

“The sun is a fundamental yardstick,” says Martin Asplund, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, in Germany. “When we determine the abundance of a certain element in a star or a galaxy or a gas cloud anywhere in the universe, we use the sun as a reference point.”

The sun’s location in the Milky Way also makes it a good representative of the entire galaxy. Most stars reside in giant galaxies like the Milky Way, which makes the sun a touchstone for the entire cosmos.

For nearly a century, astronomers have judged stars normal or not by seeing whether their chemical compositions match the sun’s. Most stars near us do; some don’t.

Scientific American. 1 July 2020. Adaptado.

Segundo o texto, conhecer a composição de elementos químicos que constituem as estrelas é fundamental, pois ela, entre outros aspectos,

  1. fornece evidências da ligação entre as idades das estrelas.
  2. sugere a existência de planetas rochosos formados por elementos pesados.
  3. influencia na possibilidade de presença de vida em outros locais do universo.
  4. determina condições cosmológicas da evolução de aglomerados estelares.
  5. possibilita a síntese de moléculas em nuvens de gás e poeira cósmica.

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